Reference Values

Reference Values

Laboratory AnalysisSpecimenNormal Values
ACT (Activated Clotting Time)B-: Normal < 120 sec, fully heparinization > 450 sec, moderate treatment effect: 175-225 sec.
AdrenalintU-: 9-101 nmol/d
AFP (alfa-phetoprotein)P-: 1-5 μg/L
AlbuminS-: 36-45 g/L
AldosteronP-: 30-444 nmol/d
Alfa-1-antitrypsinS-: Men: 0,86-1,75 g/L, Women: 0,94-1,94 g/L
ALPS-: 0,6-1,8 μkat/L
ALT (ALAT)S-: 0,15-1,1 μkat/L
AmmoniacP-: 10-50 μmol/L
AmylaseS-: 0,15 – 1,10 µkat/L (10-65 U/L)
Anion GapS-: 6-15 mmol/L
AntitrombinP-: 0,8-1,2 kIE/L
Anti factor XaP-: 0,5-1,0 kIE/L. If <0,1 kIE/L no measurable LMH concentration. If > 1.0 kIE/L reduce the dose. If > 1.5 kIE/L wait 8-12 hours before the next injection. Reduce the dose 25-50%.
APTt (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) APTt (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) measures factor XII, XI, X, IX, VIII, V, prothrombin and fibrinogen.28-42 sec
AST (ASAT)S-: 0,25-0,75 μkat/L
BetaglucanS-: Negative sample: <60 pg/mL, limit: 60 pg to 80 pg/mL, positive sample: 80 pg/mL to > 400
Bilirubin conjugatedS-: < 4 μmol/L
Bilirubin totalS-: 5-25 μmol/L
CalciumS-: 2,15-2,51 mmol/L
CeruloplasminS-: 0-17 years: 14.0-41.0 mg/dL, and > 18 years: 15.0-30.0 mg/dL
CDT (low carbohydrate transferrin): S-: < 2,0 %
CK (total)S-: 0,6-6,7 μkat/L (40-280 U/L)
CK MBS-: < 5 μg/L
COHbB- < 2% of tot Hb
CRP: 0,0-5,0 mg/L
CreatinineS-: 60-105 μmol/L, 0.5–1.2 mg/dL
CreatinineU-: Reference values is missing mmol/L
Creatinine ClearancePt-:> 65 ml/min, 0.8-1.3 mg/dL
CortisolS-: 140-275 nmol/L (daily variations)
CortisoltU-: 54-319 nmol/L
ChlorideS-: 97-109 mmol/L
CholesterolS-: 3,9-7,8 mmol/L
Cholesterol HDL S-: 0,8-2,1 mmol/L
Cholesterol LDLS-: 2,0-5,4 mmol/L
DAT - Direct Antiglobulin Test (Coombs Direct Test): Positive/Negative. Detects antibodies/supplements bound to the erythrocytes.
D-DimerP-: 0,0-0,5 mg/L (< 0,25 mg/L)
EVFMen 40-48 %, Women 34-47 %
EPC4,3-5,7 x 1012/L
ErySp-: 0 x 106/L
FeS-: 9-34 μmol/L
FerritinS-: 17-235 μg/L
FibrinogenP-: 2,0-4,0 g/L
Folat7,7-25 nmol/L
GFRPt-: > 60 ml/min
GlucoseS-: 4,0-6,3 mmol/L
GTS-: 0,15-1,9 μkat/L (15-115 U/L)
HaptoglobinP-: 0-13 years < 1,90 g/L, >13 years 0,24 – 1,90 g/L
HaptoglobinS-: 0,25-1,9 g/L
Hgb (hemoglobin)Hgb: Men 13-17 g/dL, Women 11.7-15.3 g/dL
HbAc1B-: 4,0-6,0 %
INR (PT/INR)S-: INR = international norm ratio; indicates patient coagulation time / normal coagulation time. PT (INR) is not a test but a way to answer the analysis. PT (prothrombin complex) measures factor II, VII and X. < 1,1
LactateS-: < 2,4 mmol/L
LD, S-: LD, S-: 18-70 years < 3,5 µkat/L
LipaseS-: 13-60 U/L
MagnesiumS-: 0,71-0,94 mmol/L
MCH27-33 pg
MCVMen 83-100 fL, Women 80-96 fL
MetHBB-: <2% off to Hb
MethoxycatecholaminestU: 0.5-7.0 nmol/d
MyoglobinP-: 15-65 μg/L, Men: 25-109 μg/L
NoradrenalinetU: 62-560 nmol/d
NSE, (neuron-specific enolas): S-: <12.5 μg/L
OsmolalityS-: 280-300 mosmoles/kg
Osmolal GapS-: 10-20 mosmol/L
OsmolarityU-: 300-900 mosm/kg H2O (> 750 after 8-10 hours of liquid detector)
PEth, PhosphatidylethanolB-: <0.7 μmol/L
PhosphateS-: 0,75-1,35 mmol/L
Phosfatidylethanol. B-, PEthB-: < 0,7 μmol/L
Platelets (TPC)S-: 150-360 x 109/L
PotassiumS-: 3,6-5,0 mmol/L
PotassiumU-: Reference values is missing mmol/L
Potassium daily amountU-: urine30-130 mmol/day
PTT (partial thromboplastin time): P-: 28-45 seconds
ProBNPS-: 0-15 pmol/L, < 450 ng/L (>75 years), < 150 ng/L
ProcalcitoninS-: 0,0-0,1 μg/L
ReninP: 2,8-40 ng/L
ReticulocytesB-: 30-110 x 109/L
SodiumS-: 137-145 mmol/L
SodiumU-: Reference interval missing. Tu-Na (mmol/D)/day volume (L /D) = U-Sodium mmol/L
Sodium Daily AmountU-: 50-150 mmol/day
S-100 BS-: > 18 years < 0,11 µg/L
Free T4S-: 11-22 pmol/L
Free T3S-: 3,1-6,8 pmol/L
TIBC47-80 μmol/L
TriglyceridesS-: 0,45-2,60 mmol/L
Troponin TS-: 0,0-14 ng/L
TSHS-: 0,3-4,3 mIE/L
UreaS-: 3,5-8,1 mmol/L
UreaU-: Ref values missing mmol/L
Urea daily amount: Ref missing 330-580 mmol/day
Vitamine B12: 150-700 pmol/L
VMAtU-: < 34 μmol/24 hours
WBC, mono: Sp-< 5 x 106/L (leucocytes in cerebrospinal fluid)
WBC, poly: Sp-< 1 x 106/L
WBC white blood cells3,5-9 x 109/L

Therapeutic Drug Concentrations

DrugsLabel NameSpecimenReference values in Serum
AmitriptylineSaroten, TryptizolS-: 300-700 nmol/L
AmlodipineAmlodipin, NorvascS-: 0,025 mg/L
AtenololAtenolol, TenorminS-: 0,54 mg/L
Carbamazepine Tegretol, HermolepsinS-: 20-40 µmol/L
Citalopram Citalopram, Cipralex.S-:20-800 nmol/L
DigoxinLanacristS-: <1,4 nmol/L
Phenytoin EpanutinS-: 40-80 µmol/L
FlecainideTambocorS-: 0,5-2,0 µmol/L
FluoxetinFontexS-: 100-1940 nmol/L
GentamicinGentamicin, GaramycinS-: 1.5-4.0 mg/L 8 hours after administration.
Clomipramin AnafranilS-: 550-1300 nmol/L (Clomipramin + desmetylklomipramin)
Clonazepam IktorivilS-: 35-60-(120) µmol/L
LitiumLithionitS-: 0,5 -0,8 mmol/L, sometimes 0,9-1,2 mmol/L
LamotriginLamictalP-: 12-56 µmol/L
LevetiracetamKeppraP-: 35-120 µmol/L
Meropenemanhydrat MeronemS-: 8-10 µg/mL
Mirtazapin Mirtazapin, RemeronS-: 35-520 nmol/L
Olanzapin Olanzapine, ZyprexaS-: 15-300 nmol/L
OxazepamOxazepam, OxascandS-: 0,7-4,2 µmol/L.
ParacetamolAlvedon, Panodil, RelivS-: Reference value not detectable. In case of intoxication, sampling, interpretation of test results and treatment should be in accordance with the Poison Information Center's guidelines.
ParoxetineParoxetine, SeroxatS-: 20-600 nmol/L
PropranololPropranolol, InderalS-: 0,075-0,1 mg/L
QuetiapineSeroquelS-: 50-700 nmol/L
Risperidon Risperidone, RisperdalS-: 50-150 nmol/L
Salicylates Trombyl, Treo, Magnecyl, Bamyl, AspirineS-: 1,1-2,2 mmol/L (Adults)
Sertraline Sertraline, SeroxatS-: 10-525 nmol/L
TacrolimusPrografB-: 5-20 µg/L
Theophylline Theophylline, Theo-DurS-: 55-110 µmol/L
TobramycinNebcinS-: The lowest value should not exceed 2 mg/L. In a test taken 1 hour after initiation of administration, the concentration should be at least 4 mg/L and not more than 12 mg/L.
TopiramatTopimaxS-: 15-60 µmol/L.
ValproateErgenylS-: 350-700 µmol/L
Vancomycine VancocinS-: The lowest value should not exceed 15 mg/L. Samples taken 1 hour after completion of infusion should not exceed 50 mg/L.
VenlafaxineEfexorS-: 50-900 nmol/L
ZuclopentixolCisordinolS-: 7-30 nmol/L
Please observe different units for different drugs

Reference Values Toxicology

Reference Values in Toxicology

SubstanceSpecimenReference Values
AcetoneS-: In the case of lighter poisoning, the blood concentration is approximately 2-3 mmol/L. In severe isopropanol poisoning, the acetone concentration may reach a level of about 20 mmol/L.
AmatoxinU-: In case of suspicion of poisoning with destroying angel, death cap, gallerina marginata or poisonous mushrooms, amatoxin can be determined in urine. Normal limit value is <2 μg/L.
AmphetamineU-: Responded positively if the sample has a concentration of central stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA ecstasy) exceeding 300 μg/L (cut off). Reference value: not detectable.
BenzodiazepinesU-: Reference value: Not detectable. Cut off <300 μg/L.
CannabisU-: Screening analysis is answered positively if the sample has a concentration of cannabinoids exceeding 50 μg/L (cut off). Reference value: not detectable.
EthanolS-: In acute ethanol poisoning, the effect on the CNS dominates. The sensitivity of ethanol shows large individual variations. Generally, the values ​​between 65-90 mmol/L redness and respiratory center effects. At conc. > 100 mmol/l, death may occur by respiratory paralysis (27 mmol/L = 1 promille).
IsopropanolS-: The general toxicity of isopropanol is greater than ethanol but less than methanol. For lighter poisoning, the blood concentration is <5 mmol/L, whereas severe isopropanol poisoning is present at about 20 mmol/L.
MethanolS-: Methanol concentration of 15-30 mmol/L represents serious poisoning. Already a concentration of 5-10 mmol/L can cause severe injury if non-active treatment is introduced.
OpiatesU-: Reference value: Not detectable. Cut off < 300 μg/L.
OxazepamS-: Therapeutic level: 0.7-4.2 μmol/L.
ParacetamolS-: Reference value: Not detectable. In case of intoxication, sampling, interpretation of test results and treatment should be in accordance with the Poison Information Center's guidelines.

Cut-Off Values in Urinary Screening Tests

TCA (Tricyclic Antidepressive Agents)500
THC (Cannabis)20/50/150